Often described as the art of justice, law is a set of rules and regulations enforceable through social institutions. It shapes politics, economics, and history. It is delivered through impartial and competent representatives.
Legal systems can be divided into three categories: civil law, common law, and religious law. These categories vary in the level of detail required for judicial decisions.
Common law legal systems are those that recognize court decisions as “law” and explicitly acknowledge decisions by the executive branch. They also have the doctrine of precedent, which means that a court decision in one case binds all subsequent decisions by that court.
Civil law legal systems are those that have fewer judicial decisions. These systems generally have a shorter court cycle, require less human elaboration, and are less complicated.
A judge is a government official who has authority to decide a lawsuit. They determine whether a defendant has violated a legal duty. They can also rule on appeals. They can hear cases in both state and federal courts. They can also change a court if they believe that the procedure used by the current court was improper.
Criminal law concerns the process of bringing an accused person to court. They are told of charges against them and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
Family law covers rights to children and property. It also addresses issues such as divorce, marriage, and custody. It has roots in the medieval Lex Mercatoria. It has been adapted to modern life by private individuals and companies, who create legally binding contracts.